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  1. The subplot in King Lear involves the family of Gloucester where he is the father, Edgar is his loyal son and Edmund is his deceitful (illegitimate) son.

    The story curve is similar to the main plot where the evil sibling wins his father’s approval and is able to arrogate all power to himself. The loyal and compassionate Edgar is forced to run for cover and assume an alias to save his life.

    In the end, Edgar is able to reunite with his father and reclaim his rightful inheritance. In the process, he  is able to exact revenge by killing Edmund.

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  2. Love in Hamlet exist as sub-plot. It leads to main plot line of revenge and justice. Hamlet shares love for his father, for his mother, romance with Ophelia and friendship with Horatio.

    The strongest of all these affections is for his dead father that makes his lust for revenge enough to sacrifice all other relationships like his bond with his mother Gertrude and love affair with Ophelia.

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  3. The good vs evil in Othello is represented by Iago vs Desdemona. While Desdemona is described as loving, beautiful, trusting, compassionate and divine, Iago is shown as scheming, sinister, jealous, manipulative and devilish.

    Iago also manages to bring the evil out of someone like Othello who was a venerated soldier and brave leader. This battle unlike most tales see a final triumph of evil as Iago manages to isolate Othello, brainwash him and incite him to banish his friend Cassio and kill his beloved Desdemona.

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  4. Othello ends on a gruesome note where the tragic hero Othello murders his beloved Desdemona after being manipulated by Iago and driven by his jealous rage. Iago kills his own wife Emilia in order to defend his innocence but he is taken prisoner for his misdoings.

    Othello takes his own life after learning of Iago’s plot and Cassio is left as the leading man. Ludovico gives the ending message saying that he will convey what had transpired to the state.

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  5. The short story A Letter to God is about the innocence of a poor farmer who becomes a victim of natural calamity. The author in this short story throws light on two important things:

    Blind-faith

    Lencho being uneducated has too much belief in God. For him God is on earth and one can easily have a discussion with Him or even can ask for help. Hence he writes a letter to Him seeking His help.

    The employees are moved by the innocence of Lencho and thus collect money for him so that him belief in God may remain firm. The irony of the story is that he takes the postmen as thieves as he thinks that they have stolen his money. Thus blind-faith is a dangerous thing

    Corruption

    We have discussed above that Lencho is uneducated. However the poet highlights how common corruption is in the society that even illiterate and innocent people like Lencho are also well aware of this social evil.

    Read the detailed summary of A Letter to God

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  6. Lencho is the protagonist or in simple words main character of the short story A Letter to God. He is a poor farmer but is very dedicated and hard-working. We find that he leaves no stone unturned to feed his family and fulfil their needs.

    However he is also an uneducated person and without knowledge, he is unable to make a difference between belief and reality. For him God lives on the earth and it is possible to communicate to Him.

    So he writes a letter to God and when he gets the money, he is not surprised at all. Rather he is angry over the employees for stealing some amount because his firmly believes that God has sent complete money. Lencho is thus very innocent as well.

    Read the detailed summary of A Letter to God.

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  7. Following are the main themes in the poem Charge of the Light Brigade –

    Loyalty and Patriotism

    As we know that this poem is less about mourning and more about appreciating the loyalty of the British soldiers. They knew well that their leader has mistakenly commanded the brigade to charge towards the enemy because the latter was quite stronger with superior weapons.

    Yet rather than thinking rationally, the soldiers marched towards the enemies and attacked them. The whole poem celebrates their loyalty and patriotism. This is why the poem calls them “noble six hundred” in the end of the poem.

    Courage

    The second important theme is the courage of those sis hundred soldiers. They didn’t fear from death and marched boldly. The poet explains how they were trapped between the cannons yet they fought bravely.

    Mourning

    Though the poem celebrates the sacrifice of those brave soldiers, yet the poet  expresses his grief over the deaths of a number of them. Even most of the Britishers wept over their deaths.

    Read the detailed summary of the poem.

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  8. Othello, from Shakespeare’s Canon, remains one of the most significant plays for its treatment of women. The character of Desdemona in the play offers us a subversive and radical perspective that Shakespeare has to offer.

    In the beginning of the play we see Desdemona falling in love with a Moor, a black man, Othello. Despite her father being against her decision to marry Othello, Desdemona married him. Today, marrying against one’s father’s agreement might seem relatively easy but back in sixteenth-century, such was not the case.

    Therefore, looking from a feminist perspective, Shakespeare’s Othello presents a pro-feminism view at the beginning of the play. However, by the end, one sees the undercutting of that theme as Desdemona becomes a victim of a man’s blindness, doubt and foolishness.

    Read the summary of the play.

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  9. Following literary devices have been used in the poem The Charge of the Light Brigade.

    Repetition

    The poet uses repetition several times in the poem. e.g. Half a league is repeated 3 times. Other repeated phrases are “Rode the six hundred”, “Forward the Light Brigade”, “Cannons to the Right of Them, Cannons to the Left of Them, Cannons in front of them”, “All the World Wondered“.

    Anaphora

    It means repetition of same words in the starting of a number of consecutive lines. Anaphora has also been used in the poem. e.g. “Cannon“in the phrases Cannons to the Right of Them, Cannons to the Left of Them, Cannons in front of them.

    Alliteration

    Storm’d at with shot and shell”, “Theirs but to do and die”, “All the world wondered”, “While horse and hero fell”

    Personification

    Here are the examples of personification in the poem – “the mouth of hell”, “the jaws of Death“.

    Read the detailed summary of the poem or its structure.

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